Sewer problems on a house sewer can be confusing for the typical property owner. Problems can be misdiagnosed, but more importantly incorrect advice can be given on how to correct the defect. An incorrect diagnosis can result in unnecessary excavation work, failing to correct the sewer problem, and thousands of dollars unnecessarily wasted.
Many times a homeowner can feel at the mercy of a contractor, and simply ‘gives in’ to get work started to solve the sewer problem. There are three basic sewer problems that make a drain line repair necessary. It can be most helpful to understand each type of problem in order to choose the proper course of action.
1.Roots in a sewer line
Roots from trees or shrubs growing into sewer pipe is the most common of the different sewer problems a homeowner will face. This usually happens with clay sewer pipe, as extra heavy cast iron pipe is much less susceptible to root infiltration. The process for joining cast iron soil pipe is far superior to that of vitrified clay pipe. Having water tight joints is usually enough to prevent root infiltration.
When roots do get inside a pipe they usually grow in at a number of points, not just one spot. Unfortunately if neglected the hair like roots that initially grow in develop into much larger roots and eventually break the pipe. Once fully blocking the pipe, it is very hard and costly to attempt to cut roots out, or to treat the sewer line with chemicals .
To give a chemical treatment to the house drain would require at least some flow of water inside the pipe – it cannot be fully blocked. If copper sulfite crystals (or a similar compound or product) are used at the initial signs of root infiltration costly cleanings and sewer repairs can be avoided or greatly postponed. [Read more about Tree Roots In Sewers and proper treatment]
If roots have completely blocked a house sewer, and have been neglected for a long period of time, the only recourse may be to replace the entire sewer line. As stated previously roots typically enter an underground drain line in multiple places. Therefore replacing only one section of the line would be foolish and would probably be a great waste of money, and not a permanent solution.
Another repair to avoid would be lining the house sewer which is illegal in all of NYC. Placing a lining around existing root infiltration is an act of foolishness, and attempting to completely clear out extensive root growth is next to impossible. Trying to avoid the correct job can often cost more than the correct job itself.
2. Crushed or disconnected sewer pipe
Unlike tree root issues a line can be damaged in one particular area for a number of reasons. In this case repairs can be made in that particular area, these are referred to as “spot repairs”. In some cases improper backfill can result in settlement and breaking of the pipe. Or the pipe being crushed by rocks placed on top of it.
In other cases a leaking sewer joint can cause the soil under the pipe to wash away. After time the pipe joints can separate due to the settlement of sub soil under the pipe, and the weight of the ground on top of the pipe.
The main issue with attempting a sewer repair is determining the exact location of the defective pipe and it’s location . If the point of the defect is just outside the foundation wall then the location of the pipe is not an issue. If the break is at the point of connection to the public sewer than city sewer records would have to be obtained – house sewer lines do not necessarily go in a straight run.
Excavating in the roadway in the wrong location can be an extreme waste of money and result in heated contractor and client disagreements. Obtaining public records and carefully marking out and verifying correct locations ahead of time is vitally important to not waste both time and money .
In areas where sewer lining is legal, which does NOT include NYC , broken or crushed pipe would not be a candidate for lining. Property owners should always be aware of unscrupulous contractors touting repair methods that are both not approved nor based on sound plumbing practices.
3. Back pitched house sewer
A drain line works on the principal of gravity – that water runs downhill. Therefore no mechanical devices are needed such as pumps. Backpitched pipe in a drain system can occur for two main reasons. Settlement in one particular area can occur, or a lack of pitch available for the house sewer that was installed.
Settlement of pipe on one area
In rare cases a backpitch problem can be due to settlement of the pipe in one particular area. If that is the case it can be corrected by making one excavation approximately 8′ to 10′ long and replacing those affected sections of sewer pipe. However the typical backpitch problem is more difficult to properly address and involves a greater issue with the entire drain system.
An overall lack of pitch
More typical when a drain fails to run off properly is a lack of available pitch. That means that when the line was originally installed there was not enough difference in elevations from the building to the point of the connection to the public sewer for the drain to work properly by gravity.
Instead of addressing the problem at that time, contractors frequently mistakenly or intentionally install the house sewer with sections of it backpitched. Such a drain can in some instances function for years, slowly building up grease and debris, until frequent cleanings are required.
Eventually a line without proper pitch will fail. In other cases, due to poor workmanship, an extreme amount of pitch is placed on certain sections of the pipe until there is not proper pitch available for the rest of the line. In these instances careful analysis is required prior to repairing the system.
If there is not an adequate difference in the elevations from where the drain exits the building to where it connects to the public sewer there are two solutions. One solution is to raise the house drain inside the building to create enough of a difference in the elevations.
If that is not feasible the second solution is to install an ejector pump to pump the waste water from the house drain to a higher elevation where the new point of entry for the house sewer would be.
In both of the above cases the house sewer must be replaced from the inside front of the house to at least the point where proper pitch can be obtained.
Sewer gas smell inside a house
This is probably the most easily corrected of all house sewer problems, yet one that people tend to needlessly live with. Typically the smell of sewer gas inside a house is from a house trap that has loose caps or missing covers. The main purpose of a house trap is to have a water barrier blocking sewer gases from entering a house. Leaving the trap covers open or loose defeats the entire purpose.
Simply replacing the trap covers or tightening the existing trap covers will solve the problem. In some cases when a house is left unoccupied for awhile the trap may dry out. Just opening a faucet and running some water down a drain will fill the trap and solve the problem.
In other cases a sewer gas smell may be evident outside the house. This is typically from roof leader lines or outside area drains that are connected to the house drain outside the house and do not have traps. All plumbing drain connections should be trapped to prevent sewer gas from escaping. This also includes connections outside the house. [Read more about house sewer traps]
A final word of advice about sewer problems
Sewer work is a specialty field within the plumbing industry itself. It is not legally or best performed by sewer cleaners or handymen. Likewise those with a lack of experience, expertise, licensing, or insurance should not be trusted to perform sewer repair or replacement work.
Only highly skilled, licensed, and insured sewer contractors should be entrusted to analyze, understand, and undertake corrective work for house sewer problems. Being a sewer contractor is a specialty field within the licensed plumbing industry.